For quality control of biofuels, determination of oxidation stability, iodine and acid number as well as water, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal content are important. Titrimetric and ion chromatographic analyses are also addressed.
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Advantages of ethers produced through wet ethanol and biodiesel through vegetable oils as esters or hydrogenated vegetable oil provide major advantages in blending and fuel properties and meet the renewable fuels requirements.
An review of Fischer-Tropsch technologies for the production of diesel from syngas using a variety of feedstocks. Process technology, reactor design and catalyst requirements to achieve industrial-scale diesel and petrochemical production are discussed.
Future process routes based on heterogeneous catalysis will enable effective and economical conversion of solid biomass into sustainable fuels, chemicals and energy. This conversion is based on the effective opening or unlocking of solid biomass.
Numerous factors affect CTL economics and technology for converting different qualities of coal into transportation fuels, chemicals and intermediates. Potential yields are based on future market conditions relative to crude prices and conventional refinery operations.
Benefits of producing bioethers compared to blending bioethanol are examined for the total European gasoline pool. The result of maximising ethanol use in the pool via etherification is evaluated. Economics for optimum biofuels operation are presented.
This paper provides a historical review of a wide range of process technologies that have been licensed by Davy Process Technology in China over the last twenty years and gives brief details of the plants using these technologies that have been installed in this period. Some indications are given concerning how future collaborative technical development may lead to sustainable process technologies that are less dependent on non-renewable hydrocarbon resources.
As part of its renewable fuels programme, Brazil’s need for increased diesel production will be met by a new biodiesel process integrated into refinery hydrotreating units. The process provides high conversion yields using agricultural feedstocks.
Developing strategies to capitalise on rapidly growing market demands for alternative fuels, such as biofuels, calls for technology capable of delivering immediate and measurable results , as disccussed in the following case study.
A revamp has made possible the large-scale production of clean diesel with a significant percentage of renewable content.